Testicular Problems 

The two testes are the male sex organs that produce sperm and male hormones. Behind each testicle is a coiled tube called theepididymis. Sperm matures as they pass from the tesiticle through the epididymis.  The testicles are formed near the kidneys. As the fetus grows in the mother's womb, the testicles move down through the groin into the scrotum. The scrotum is a sac of skin that covers the testicles. Blood vessels in the scrotum carry blood to and from the tesicles.

In addition to their role in the male reproductive system, the testes are also an endocrine gland because they secrete testosterone. While the location of the testes is vulnerable to injury, it provides a cooler temperature for the organs. A cooler enviroment is necessary for healthy sperm production.

The following are medical issues that involve the testes.

Epididymitis and Orchitis  Undescended Testicle  Varicocele



  Epididymitis and Orchitis
Epididymitis is the inflammation of the epididymis, as shown to the right. This is caused by bacteria in the urinary tract or by bacteria passed between patners during sex. When the inflammation spreadesThe General Idea to a testicle, it is called orchitits.

There are two types of inflammation; acute and chronic. Acute inflammation comes on very quickly. Chronic inflammation is often the late phase of an acute infection.  Acute inflammation symptoms include: pain and swelling in the scrotum, an urge to urinate, a discharge from the penis, pain during ejaculation, and fever. Chronic inflammation symptoms include: an ache or dull pain in the sctorum and heavy feeling in the scrotum.

A physical exam will determine if your testicles are swelling. The urethra is checked for discharge and a urine sample will be taken. The urine sample will show if bacteria is causing the inflammation. Some other tests may be done according to the individual and their needs.


  1. Antibiotics:often oral antibiotics for acute epididymitis
  2. Anti-inflammatories: medication to reduce swelling and tenderness
  3. Rest: most likely 3 to 4 days of rest
  4. Scrotum Support: this helps relieve your discomfort until the swelling goes down
  5. Ice and Heat: an ice pack on the scrotum can help decrease swelling and a warm bath will increase blood flow


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The The General Ideatesticles are the male sex organ and form near the kidneys. As fetus grows in the mother's womb, the testicles move into the scrotum. Normally the testibles will descent into the scrotum 4 to 6 weeks before birth. Sometimes a testicle will stop along the normal pathway between the kidney and the scrotum, or stray from the pathway completely. Undescended testicles are most common in premature babies. Most often only one of two testicles is undescended.

The undescended testible can usually be felt during a physical exam. Your baby lies on his back for the exam. An older child may be asked to squat. The doctor places his or her fingers on the child's groin and then gently moves them toward the scrotum until the testicle is felt. If the testicle can't be found with an exam, imaging studeis, such as an ultrasound, or other special tests may be needed.

The longer a testicle remains outside the scrotum, the more likely the child will have a low sperm count in adult age. Also, undescended testicles can cause cancer and hernia to develop.





The The General Ideaveins that carry blood from the testicles extend up into the groin. That means that the blood has to travel upward a long way. Valves in the veins act like gates to keep the blood from flowing back toward the testicles. In some men, these valves don't close fully. Or the muscles in the walls of the veins may be weak. Then some blood flows back into the scrotum. The blood collects in the veins above the testicles. This makes the veins enlarge.

Varicocele is swellin in the veins above the testicles. It is similar to having varicose veins in the legs. The swelling occurs when too much blood collects in the veins. Varicocele most often occurs around the left testicle.

Treatment for varicocele varies depending on the patient and their needs. Consult your doctor for your options.